Education Learning Outcomes
Saint Xavier University is dedicated to providing top-quality education that is intentionally designed to develop your skills and expertise as you prepare for the next step in your education or career. The learning outcomes reflect the specific competencies that you will gain from our education programs, while the curriculum map portrays how these competencies will shape and prepare you for the real world.
Learning Outcomes for All Initial Licensure Students (Illinois Professional Teaching Standards):
Teaching Diverse Students
The competent teacher understands the diverse characteristics and abilities of each student and how individuals develop and learn within the context of their social, economic, cultural, linguistic and academic experiences. The teacher uses these experiences to create instructional opportunities that maximize student learning.
Content Area and Pedagogical Knowledge
The competent teacher has in-depth understanding of content area knowledge that includes central concepts, methods of inquiry, structures of the disciplines and literacy. The teacher creates meaningful learning experiences for each student based upon interactions among content area, pedagogical knowledge and evidence-based practice.
Planning for Differentiated Instruction
The competent teacher plans and designs instruction based on content area knowledge, diverse student characteristics, student performance data, curriculum goals and the community context. The teacher plans for ongoing student growth and achievement.
The competent teacher structures a safe and healthy learning environment that facilitates cultural and linguistic responsiveness, emotional well-being, self-efficacy, positive social interaction, mutual respect, active engagement, academic risk-taking, self-motivation and personal goal-setting.
The competent teacher differentiates instruction by using a variety of strategies that support critical and creative thinking, problem-solving, continuous growth and learning. This teacher understands that the classroom is a dynamic environment that requires ongoing modification of instruction to enhance learning for each student.
Reading, Writing and Oral Communication
The competent teacher has foundational knowledge of reading, writing and oral communication within the content area and recognizes and addresses student reading, writing and oral communication needs to facilitate the acquisition of content knowledge.
The competent teacher understands and uses appropriate formative and summative assessments for determining student needs, monitoring student progress, measuring student growth and evaluating student outcomes. The teacher makes decisions driven by data about curricular and instructional effectiveness and adjusts practices to meet the needs of each student.
The competent teacher builds and maintains collaborative relationships to foster cognitive, linguistic, physical, social and emotional development. This teacher works as a team member with professional colleagues, students, parents or guardians and community members.
Professionalism, Leadership and Advocacy
The competent teacher is an ethical and reflective practitioner who exhibits professionalism, provides leadership in the learning community and advocates for students, parents or guardians and the profession.
Early Childhood Education (National Association for the Education of Young Children):
Candidates prepared in early childhood degree programs are grounded in a child development knowledge base. They use their understanding of:
- Young children's characteristics and needs
- Multiple interacting influences on children's development and learning
- Creating environments that are healthy, respectful, supportive and challenging for each child
- Building family and community relationships
Candidates prepared in early childhood degree programs understand that successful early childhood education depends upon partnerships with children's families and communities. They understand and value the importance and complex characteristics of children's families and communities. They use this understanding to create respectful, reciprocal relationships that support and empower families to involve all families in their children's development, while learning, observing, documenting and assessing young children and families.
Candidates prepared in early childhood degree programs understand that child observation, documentation and other forms of assessment are central to the practice of all early childhood professionals. They:
- Understand the goals, benefits and uses of assessment.
- Use systematic observations, documentation and other effective assessment strategies
- Positively influence the development of every child, in partnership with families and other professionals
- Use developmentally effective approaches
Candidates prepared in early childhood degree programs understand that teaching and learning with young children is a complex enterprise, and its details vary depending on children's ages, characteristics and the settings within which teaching and learning occur. They:
- Understand and use positive relationships and supportive interactions as the foundation for their work with young children and families
- Know, understand and use a wide array of developmentally appropriate approaches, instructional strategies and tools to connect with children and families
- Positively influence each child's development and learning
- Use content knowledge to build meaningful curriculum
Candidates prepared in early childhood degree programs use their knowledge of academic disciplines to design, implement, and evaluate experiences that promote positive development and learning for each and every young child. Candidates understand the importance of developmental domains and academic (or content) disciplines in early childhood curriculum. They:
- Know the essential concepts, inquiry tools and structure of content areas, including academic subjectS, and can identify resources to deepen their understanding
- Use their own knowledge and other resources to design, implement and evaluate meaningful, challenging curriculum that promotes comprehensive developmental and learning outcomes for every young child
- Become a professional
Candidates prepared in early childhood degree programs identify and conduct themselves as members of the early childhood profession. They use ethical guidelines and other professional standards related to early childhood practice. They:
- Are continuous, collaborative learners who demonstrate knowledgeable, reflective and critical perspectives on their work, making informed decisions
- Integrate knowledge from a variety of sources
- Are informed advocates for sound educational practices and policies
Candidates have field experiences and clinical practice in at least two of the three early childhood age groups (birth to age three, three through five, five through eight years) and in the variety of settings that offer early education (early school grades, child care centers and homes, Head Start programs).
Learning Outcomes for Elementary Education (Association for Childhood Education International):
- Development, Learning and Motivation
Candidates know, understand and use the major concepts, principles, theories and research related to development of children and young adolescents to construct learning opportunities that support individual students' development, acquisition of knowledge and motivation.
- Reading, Writing and Oral Language
Candidates demonstrate a high level of competence in use of English language arts and they know, understand, and use concepts from reading, language and child development, to teach reading, writing, speaking, viewing, listening and thinking skills and to help students successfully apply their developing skills to many different situations, materials and ideas.
Candidates know, understand, and use fundamental concepts of physical, life, and earth/space sciences. Candidates can design and implement age-appropriate inquiry lessons to teach science, to build student understanding for personal and social applications, and to convey the nature of science.
Candidates know, understand, and use the major concepts and procedures that define number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement and data analysis and probability. In doing so they consistently engage problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections and representation.
- Social Studies
Candidates know, understand and use the major concepts and modes of inquiry from the social studies -- the integrated study of history, geography, the social sciences and other related areas -- to promote elementary students' abilities to make informed decisions as citizens of a culturally diverse democratic society and interdependent world.
- The Arts
Candidates know, understand and use -- as appropriate to their own understanding and skills -- the content, functions and achievements of the performing arts (dance, music, theater) and the visual arts as primary media for communication, inquiry and engagement among elementary students.
- Health Education
Candidates know, understand and use the major concepts in the subject matter of health education to create opportunities for student development and practice of skills that contribute to good health.
- Physical Education
Candidates know, understand, and use -- as appropriate to their own understanding and skills -- human movement and physical activity as central elements to foster active, healthy life styles and enhanced quality of life for elementary students.
- Integrating and applying knowledge for instruction
Candidates plan and implement instruction based on knowledge of students, learning theory, connections across the curriculum, curricular goals and community.
- Adaptation to diverse students
Candidates understand how elementary students differ in their development and approaches to learning and create instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse students.
- Development of critical thinking and problem solving
Candidates understand and use a variety of teaching strategies that encourage elementary students' development of critical thinking and problem solving.
- Active engagement in learning
Candidates use their knowledge and understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior among students at the K-6 level to foster active engagement in learning, self-motivation and positive social interaction and to create supportive learning environments.
- Communication to foster collaboration
Candidates use their knowledge and understanding of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration and supportive interaction in the elementary classroom.
- Assessment for instruction
Candidates know, understand, and use formal and informal assessment strategies to plan, evaluate and strengthen instruction that will promote continuous intellectual, social, emotional and physical development of each elementary student.
- Professional growth, reflection, and evaluation
Candidates are aware of and reflect on their practice in light of research on teaching, professional ethics, and resources available for professional learning; they continually evaluate the effects of their professional decisions and actions on students, families and other professionals in the learning community and actively seek out opportunities to grow professionally.
- Collaboration with families, colleagues, and community agencies
Candidates know the importance of establishing and maintaining a positive collaborative relationship with families, school colleagues and agencies in the larger community to promote the intellectual, social, emotional, physical growth and well-being of children.
Learning Outcomes for Middle Level Education (AMLE):
- Young Adolescent Development
Middle level teacher candidates understand, use, and reflect on the major concepts, principles, theories and research related to young adolescent development and use that knowledge in their practice. They demonstrate their ability to apply this knowledge when making curricular decisions, planning and implementing instruction, participating in middle level programs and practices and providing healthy and effective learning environments for all young adolescents.
- Middle Level Curriculum
Middle level teacher candidates understand and use the central concepts, standards, research and structures of content to plan and implement curriculum that develops all young adolescents' competence in subject matter. They use their knowledge and available resources to design, implement and evaluate challenging, developmentally responsive curriculum that results in meaningful learning outcomes. Middle level teacher candidates demonstrate their ability to assist all young adolescents in understanding the interdisciplinary nature of knowledge. They design and teach curriculum that is responsive to all young adolescents' local, national and international histories, language/dialects and individual identities (e.g., race, ethnicity, culture, age, appearance, ability, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, family composition).
- Middle Level Philosophy and School Organization
Middle level teacher candidates understand the major concepts, principles, theories, and research underlying the philosophical foundations of developmentally responsive middle level programs and schools, and they work successfully within middle level organizational components.
- Middle Level Instruction and Assessment
Middle level teacher candidates understand, use, and reflect on the major concepts, principles, theories, and research related to data-informed instruction and assessment. They employ a variety of developmentally appropriate instructional strategies, information literacy skills, and technologies to meet the learning needs of all young adolescents (e.g., race, ethnicity, culture, age, appearance, ability, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, family composition).
- Middle Level Professional Roles
Middle level teacher candidates understand their complex roles as teachers of young adolescents. They engage in practices and behaviors that develop their competence as middle level professionals. They are informed advocates for young adolescents and middle-level education and work successfully with colleagues, families, community agencies and community members. Middle level teacher candidates demonstrate positive dispositions and engage in ethical professional behaviors.
Major in English Secondary Education Learning Outcomes (National Council of Teachers of English):
- Teacher candidates will demonstrate knowledge of English language arts subject matter content that specifically includes literature and multimedia texts as well as knowledge of the nature of adolescents as readers.
- Teacher candidates will demonstrate knowledge of English language arts subject matter content that specifically includes language and writing as well as knowledge of adolescents as language users.
- Teacher candidates will be able to plan instruction and design assessments for reading and the study of literature to promote learning for all students.
- Students will be able to plan instruction and design assessments for composing texts (i.e., oral, written, and visual) to promote learning for all students.
- Teacher candidates will be able to plan, implement, assess and reflect on research-based instruction that increases motivation and active student engagement, builds sustained learning of English language arts and responds to diverse students' context-based needs.
- Teacher candidates will demonstrate knowledge of how theories and research about social justice, diversity, equity, student identities and schools as institutions can enhance students' opportunities to learn in English language arts.
- Teacher candidates will be prepared to interact knowledgeably with students, families and colleagues based on social needs and institutional roles, engage in leadership and/or collaborative roles in English language arts professional learning communities and actively develop as professional educators.
Mathematics with Secondary Education Student Learning Outcomes (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics):
Graduates of the Mathematics with Secondary Education program at SXU will demonstrate the following competencies:
- Teacher candidates will demonstrate and apply knowledge of major mathematics concepts, algorithms, procedures, applications in varied contexts, and connections within and among mathematical domains (number, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, statistics, probability, calculus and discrete mathematics) as outlined in the NCTM CAEP Mathematics Content for Secondary.
- Teacher candidates will independently research a mathematical topic and write a mathematically accurate research paper, thereby displaying a depth of knowledge of undergraduate mathematics.
- Teacher candidates will use problem solving to develop conceptual understanding, make sense of a wide variety of problems and persevere in solving them, apply and adapt a variety of strategies in solving problems confronted within the field of mathematics and other contexts and formulate and test conjectures in order to frame generalizations.
- Teacher candidates will reason abstractly, reflectively and quantitatively with attention to units, constructing viable arguments and proofs and critiquing the reasoning of others; represent and model generalizations using mathematics; recognize structure and express regularity in patterns of mathematical reasoning; use multiple representations to model and describe mathematics; and utilize appropriate mathematical vocabulary and symbols to communicate mathematical ideas to others.
- Teacher candidates will be able to formulate, represent, analyze and interpret mathematical models derived from real-world contexts or mathematical problems.
- Teacher candidates will organize mathematical thinking and use the language of mathematics to express ideas precisely, both orally and in writing to multiple audiences.
- Teacher candidates will demonstrate the interconnectedness of mathematical ideas and how they build on one another and recognize and apply mathematical connections among mathematical ideas and across various content areas and real-world contexts.
- Teacher candidates will model how the development of mathematical understanding within and among mathematical domains intersects with the mathematical practices of problem solving, reasoning, communicating, connecting, and representing.
- Teacher candidates will apply knowledge of curriculum standards for secondary mathematics and their relationship to student learning within and across mathematical domains.
- Teacher candidates will analyze research in planning and leading students in rich mathematical learning experiences.
- Teacher candidates will plan lessons and units that incorporate a variety of strategies, differentiated instruction for diverse populations and mathematics-specific and instructional technologies in building all students' conceptual understanding and procedural proficiency.
- Teacher candidates will provide students with opportunities to communicate about mathematics and make connections among mathematics, other content areas, everyday life and the workplace.
- Teacher candidates will implement techniques related to student engagement and communication including selecting high quality tasks, guiding mathematical discussions, identifying key mathematical ideas, identifying and addressing student misconceptions and employing a range of questioning strategies.
- Teacher candidates will plan, select, implement, interpret and use formative and summative assessments to inform instruction by reflecting on mathematical proficiencies essential for all students.
- Teacher candidates will monitor students' progress, make instructional decisions and measure students' mathematical understanding and ability using formative and summative assessments.
Mathematical Learning Environment
- Teacher candidates will exhibit knowledge of adolescent learning, development and behavior and demonstrate a positive disposition toward mathematical processes and learning.
- Teacher candidates will plan and create developmentally appropriate, sequential and challenging learning opportunities grounded in mathematics education research in which students are actively engaged in building new knowledge from prior knowledge and experiences.
- Teacher candidates will incorporate knowledge of individual differences and the cultural and language diversity that exists within classrooms and include culturally relevant perspectives as a means to motivate and engage students.
- Teacher candidates will demonstrate equitable and ethical treatment of and high expectations for all students.
- Teacher candidates will mathematical content and pedagogical knowledge to select and use instructional tools such as manipulatives and physical models, drawings, virtual environments, spreadsheets, presentation tools and mathematics-specific technologies (e.g., graphing tools, interactive geometry software, computer algebra systems and statistical packages), and make sound decisions about when such tools enhance teaching and learning, recognizing both the insights to be gained and possible limitations of such tools.
Impact on Student Learning
- Teacher candidates will verify that secondary students demonstrate conceptual understanding; procedural fluency; the ability to formulate, represent and solve problems; logical reasoning and continuous reflection on that reasoning; productive disposition toward mathematics; and the application of mathematics in a variety of contexts within major mathematical domains.
- Teacher candidates will engage students in developmentally appropriate mathematical activities and investigations that require active engagement and include mathematics-specific technology in building new knowledge.
- Teacher candidates will collect, organize, analyze and reflect on diagnostic, formative and summative assessment evidence and determine the extent to which students' mathematical proficiencies have increased as a result of their instruction.
Professional Knowledge and Skills
- Teacher candidates will take an active role in their professional growth by participating in professional development experiences that directly relate to the learning and teaching of mathematics.
- Teacher candidates will engage in continuous and collaborative learning that draws upon research in mathematics education to inform practice; enhance learning opportunities for all students' mathematical knowledge development; involve colleagues, other school professionals, families and various stakeholders; and advance their development as a reflective practitioner.
- Teacher candidates will utilize resources from professional mathematics education organizations such as print, digital and virtual resources/collections.
Secondary Mathematics Field Experiences and Clinical Practice
- Teacher candidates will engage in a sequence of planned field experiences and clinical practice prior to a full-time student teaching/internship experience that include observing and participating in high school mathematics classrooms and working with a diverse range of students individually, in small groups and in large class settings under the supervision of experienced and highly qualified mathematics teachers in varied settings that reflect cultural, ethnic, linguistic, gender and learning differences.
- Teacher candidates will experience full-time student teaching/internship in secondary mathematics that is supervised by a highly qualified mathematics teacher and a university or college supervisor with secondary mathematics teaching experience or equivalent knowledge base.
- Teacher candidates will develop knowledge, skills and professional behaviors across high school settings; examine the nature of mathematics, how mathematics should be taught, and how students learn mathematics; and observe and analyze a range of approaches to mathematics teaching and learning, focusing on tasks, discourse, environment and assessment.
Science with Secondary Education Student Learning Outcomes (National Science Teachers Association):
Effective teachers of science understand and articulate the knowledge and practices of contemporary science. They interrelate and interpret important concepts, ideas and applications in their fields of licensure. Students will:
- Understand the major concepts, principles, theories, laws and interrelationships of their fields of licensure and supporting fields as recommended by the National Science Teachers Association.
- Understand the central concepts of the supporting disciplines and the supporting role of science-specific technology.
- Show an understanding of state and national curriculum standards and their impact on the content knowledge necessary for teaching P-12 students.
Effective teachers of science understand how students learn and develop scientific knowledge. Pre-service teachers use scientific inquiry to develop this knowledge for all students. Students will:
- Plan multiple lessons using a variety of inquiry approaches that demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of how all students learn science.
- Include active inquiry lessons where students collect and interpret data to develop and communicate concepts and understand scientific processes, relationships and natural patterns from empirical experiences. Applications of science-specific technology are included in the lessons when appropriate.
- Design instruction and assessment strategies that confront and address naïve concepts/preconceptions.
Effective teachers of science are able to plan for engaging all students in science learning by setting appropriate goals that are consistent with knowledge of how students learn science and are aligned with state and national standards. The plans reflect the nature and social context of science, inquiry and appropriate safety considerations. Candidates design and select learning activities, instructional settings and resources, including science-specific technology, to achieve those goals; and they plan fair and equitable assessment strategies to evaluate if the learning goals are met. Students will:
- Use a variety of strategies that demonstrate the candidates' knowledge and understanding of how to select the appropriate teaching and learning activities -- including laboratory or field settings and applicable instruments and/or technology -- to allow access so that all students learn. These strategies are inclusive and motivating for all students.
- Develop lesson plans that include active inquiry lessons where students collect and interpret data using applicable science-specific technology in order to develop concepts, understand scientific processes, relationships and natural patterns from empirical experiences. These plans provide for equitable achievement of science literacy for all students.
- Plan fair and equitable assessment strategies to analyze student learning and to evaluate if the learning goals are met. Assessment strategies are designed to continuously evaluate preconceptions and ideas that students hold and the understandings that students have formulated.
- Plan a learning environment and learning experiences for all students that demonstrate chemical safety, safety procedures and the ethical treatment of living organisms within their licensure area.
Effective teachers of science can, in a P-12 classroom setting, demonstrate and maintain chemical safety, safety procedures and the ethical treatment of living organisms needed in the P-12 science classroom appropriate to their area of licensure. Students will:
- Design activities in a P-12 classroom that demonstrate the safe and proper techniques for the preparation, storage, dispensing, supervision and disposal of all materials used within their subject area science instruction.
- Design and demonstrate activities in a P-12 classroom that demonstrate an ability to implement emergency procedures and the maintenance of safety equipment, policies and procedures that comply with established state and/or national guidelines. Candidates ensure safe science activities appropriate for the abilities of all students.
- Design and demonstrate activities in a P-12 classroom that demonstrate ethical decision-making with respect to the treatment of all living organisms in and out of the classroom. They emphasize safe, humane and ethical treatment of animals and comply with the legal restrictions on the collection, keeping and use of living organisms.
Impact on Student Learning
Effective teachers of science provide evidence to show that P-12 students' understanding of major science concepts, principles, theories and laws have changed as a result of instruction by the candidate and that student knowledge is at a level of understanding beyond memorization. Candidates provide evidence for the diversity of students they teach. Students will:
- Collect, organize, analyze and reflect on diagnostic, formative and summative evidence of a change in mental functioning demonstrating that scientific knowledge is gained and/or corrected.
- Provide data to show that P-12 students are able to distinguish science from nonscience, understand the evolution and practice of science as a human endeavor and critically analyze assertions made in the name of science.
- Engage students in developmentally appropriate inquiries that require them to develop concepts and relationships from their observations, data and inferences in a scientific manner.
Professional Knowledge and Skills
Effective teachers of science strive continuously to improve their knowledge and understanding of the ever-changing knowledge base of both content, and science pedagogy, including approaches for addressing inequities and inclusion for all students in science. They identify with and conduct themselves as part of the science education community. Students will engage in professional development opportunities in their content field such as talks, symposiums, research opportunities, projects or conferences within their community.
Social Science with Secondary Education Student Learning Outcomes (National Council for the Social Studies)
Culture and Cultural Diversity
Candidates in social studies at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of culture and cultural diversity. Students will:
- Enable learners to analyze and explain how groups, societies, and cultures address human needs and concerns.
- Guide learners as they predict how experiences may be interpreted by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of references.
- Assist learners to apply an understanding and of culture as an integrated whole that governs the functions and interactions of language, literature, arts, traditions, beliefs, values and behavior patterns.
- Encourage learners to compare and to analyze societal patterns for transmitting and preserving culture while adapting to environmental and social change.
- Ask learners to give examples and describe the importance of cultural unity and diversity within and across groups;
- Have learners interpret patterns of behavior as reflecting values and attitudes that contribute to or pose obstacles to cross-cultural understanding.
- Guide learners as they construct reasoned judgments about specific cultural responses to persistent human issues.
- Have learners explain and apply ideas, theories and modes of inquiry drawn from anthropology and sociology in the examination of persistent issues and social problems.
Time, Continuity and Change
Candidates in social studies at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of time, continuity and change. Students will:
- Assist learners to understand that historical knowledge and the concept of time are socially influenced constructions that lead historians to be selective in the questions they seek to answer and the evidence they use.
- Help learners apply key concepts from the study of history -- such as time, chronology, causality, change, conflict and complexity -- to explain, analyze and show connections among patterns of historical change and continuity.
- Enable learners to identify and describe significant historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures, including but not limited to, the development of ancient cultures and civilizations, the emergence of religious belief systems and the rise of nation-states and social, economic and political revolutions.
- Guide learners in using processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and reinterpret the past, such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, searching for causality and distinguishing between events and developments that are significant from those that are inconsequential.
- Provide learners with opportunities to investigate, interpret and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas and persistent issues, while employing empathy, skepticism and critical judgment.
- Enable learners to apply ideas, theories and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments, and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.
People, Places and Environments
Candidates in social studies at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of people, places, and environments. Students will:
- Enable learners to use, interpret and distinguish various representations of Earth, such as maps, globes and photographs and to use appropriate geographic tools.
- Encourage learners to construct, use and refine maps and mental maps; calculate distance, scale, area and density; and organize information about people, places, regions and environments in a spatial context.
- Help learners to locate, distinguish, and describe the relationships among varying regional and global patterns of physical systems such as landforms, climate, and natural resources, and explain changes in the physical systems.
- Guide learners in exploring characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth's surface.
- Assist learners in describing how people create places that reflect culture, human needs, current values and ideals and government policies.
- Help learners to examine, interpret, and analyze interactions between human beings and their physical environments and to observe and analyze social and economic effects of environmental changes, both positive and negative.
- Challenge learners to consider, compare, and evaluate existing uses of resources and land in communities, regions, countries and the world.
- Help learners explore ways in which Earth's physical features have changed over time and describe and assess ways historical events have influenced and been influenced by physical and human geographic features.
Individual Development and Identity
Candidates in social studies at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of ideas associated with individual human development, behavior and identity. Students will:
- Help learners comprehend and apply concepts, theories and principles associated with human cognitive, emotional and personal development.
- Enable learners to understand how the development and maturation of the brain and body influence thought and perception.
- Assist learners in articulating personal connections to time, place and social/cultural systems.
- Help learners to appreciate and describe the influence of cultures, past and present, upon the daily lives of individuals.
- Assist learners to describe how family, religion, gender, ethnicity, nationality, socioeconomic status and other group and cultural influences contribute to the development of a sense of self.
- Enable learners to apply concepts, inquiry methods and theories in the study of human growth and development, learning, motivation, behavior, perception and personality.
- Guide learners as they analyze the interactions among ethical, ethnic, national and cultural factors in specific situations.
- Help learners to analyze the role of perceptions, attitudes, values and beliefs in the development of personal identity and on human behavior.
- Enable learners to compare and to evaluate the impact of stereotyping, conformity, acts of altruism, discrimination and other behaviors on individuals and groups.
- Help learners understand how individual perceptions develop, vary and can lead to conflict.
- Assist learners as they work independently and cooperatively within groups and institutions to accomplish goals.
- Encourage learners to examine factors that contribute to and damage one's mental health and to analyze issues related to mental health and behavioral disorders in contemporary society.
Individuals, Groups and Institutions
Candidates in social studies at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of interactions among individuals, groups and institutions. Students will:
- Help learners understand the concepts of role, status and social class and use them in describing the connections and interactions among individuals, groups and institutions in society.
- Help learners analyze groups and calculate the influence of institutions on people, events and elements of cultures in both historical and contemporary settings.
- Help learners understand the various forms institutions take, their functions and their relationships to one another and explain how they develop and change over time.
- Assist learners in identifying and analyzing examples of tensions between expressions of individuality and efforts of groups and institutions to promote social conformity.
- Enable learners to describe and examine belief systems basic to specific traditions and laws in contemporary and historical societies.
- Enable learners to evaluate the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change.
- Guide learner analysis of the extent to which groups and institutions meet individual needs and promote the common good in contemporary and historical settings.
- Assist learners as they explain and apply ideas and modes of inquiry drawn from behavioral sciences in the examination of persistent issues and social problems.
Power, Authority, and Governance
Candidates in social studies at all levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of power, authority, and governance. Students will:
- Enable learners to examine the rights and responsibilities of individuals in relation to their families, their social groups, their communities and their nation.
- Help students explain the purpose of government and how its powers are acquired, used and justified.
- Enable learners to examine issues involving the rights, roles and status of individuals in relation to the general welfare.
- Assist learners in describing the ways nations and organizations respond to forces of unity and diversity affecting order and security.
- Enable learners to explain conditions, actions and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation within and among nations.
- Help learners analyze and explain governmental mechanisms to meet the needs and wants of citizens, regulate territory, manage conflict and establish order and security.
- Help learners identify and explain the basic features of the American political system and identify leaders of the various levels and branches of government.
- Challenge learners to apply concepts such as power, role, status, justice, democratic values and influence to the examination of persistent issues and social problems.
- Help learners explain how governments attempt to achieve their stated ideals at home and abroad.
Production, Distribution, and consumption
Candidates in social studies at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of how people organize for the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Students will:
- Enable learners to understand how the scarcity of productive resources (human, capital, technological and natural) requires the development of economic systems to make decisions about how goods and services are to be produced and distributed.
- Help learners analyze the role that supply and demand, prices, incentives and profits play in determining what is produced and distributed in a competitive market system.
- Help learners compare the costs and benefits to society of allocating goods and services through private and public means.
- Assist learners in understanding the relationships among the various economic institutions that comprise economic systems such as households, businesses, financial institutions, government agencies, labor unions and corporations.
- Guide learners in analyzing the roles of specialization and exchange in economic processes.
- Assist learners in assessing how values and beliefs influence economic decisions in different societies.
- Enable learners to compare economic systems according to how they deal with demand, supply, prices, the role of government, banks, labor and labor unions, savings and investments and capital.
- Challenge learners to apply economic concepts and reasoning when evaluating historical and contemporary social developments and issues.
- Enable learners to distinguish between domestic and global economic systems and explain how the two interact.
- Guide learners in the application of economic concepts and principles in the analysis of public issues such as the allocation of health care and the consumption of energy and in devising economic plans for accomplishing socially desirable outcomes related to such issues.
- Help learners critically examine the values and assumptions underlying the theories and models of economics.
- Help learners distinguish between economics as a field of inquiry and the economy.
Science, Technology and Society
Teachers of social studies at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of science and technology. Students will:
- Enable learners to identify, describe and examine both current and historical examples of the interaction and interdependence of science, technology and society in a variety of cultural settings.
- Assist learners in making judgments about how science and technology have transformed the physical world and human society as well as our understanding of time, space, place and human-environment interactions.
- Help learners analyze the way in which science and technology influence core societal values, beliefs and attitudes and how societal attitudes influence scientific and technological endeavors.
- Prompt learners to evaluate various policies proposed to deal with social changes resulting from new technologies.
- Help learners identify and interpret various perspectives about human societies and the physical world, using scientific knowledge, technologies and an understanding of ethical standards of this and other cultures.
- Encourage learners to formulate strategies and develop policy proposals pertaining to science/technology/society issues.
Candidates in social studies at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of global connections and interdependence. Students will:
- Enable learners to explain how interactions among people with different languages, beliefs can facilitate global understanding or cause misunderstanding.
- Help learners explain conditions and motivations that contribute to conflict, cooperation and interdependence among groups, societies, and nations.
- Assist learners in analyzing and evaluating the effects of changing technologies on the global community.
- Challenge learners to analyze the causes, consequences and possible solutions to persistent, contemporary and emerging global issues, such as those pertaining to human health, security, resource allocation, economic development and environmental quality.
- Guide learner analysis of the relationships and tensions between national sovereignty and global interests in such matters as territorial disputes, economic development, weapons deployment, use of natural resources and human rights concerns.
- Help learners analyze or formulate policy statements that demonstrate an understanding of concerns, standards, issues and conflicts related to universal human rights.
- Help learners describe and evaluate the role of international and multinational organizations in the global arena.
- Have learners illustrate how behaviors and decisions of individuals and groups affect and are affected by global systems.
Civic Ideals and Practices
Candidates in social studies at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in the study of civic ideals and practices. They should:
- Assist learners in understanding the meaning, origins, and continuing influence of key ideals of the democratic republican form of government, such as individual human dignity, liberty, justice, equality, general welfare, domestic peace and the rule of law.
- Guide learner efforts to identify, interpret, analyze and evaluate sources and examples of citizens' rights and responsibilities.
- Help learners locate, access, analyze, organize, synthesize, evaluate and apply information about selected public issues -- identifying, describing, and evaluating multiple points of view and taking reasoned positions on such issues.
- Enable learners to practice forms of civic discussion and participation consistent with the ideals of citizenship in a democratic republic.
- Help learners analyze and evaluate the influence of various forms of citizen action on public policy.
- Prepare learners to analyze a variety of public policies and issues from the perspectives of formal and informal political actors.
- Guide learners as they evaluate the effectiveness of public opinion in influencing and shaping public policy development and decision-making.
- Encourage learner efforts to evaluate the degree to which public policies and citizen behaviors reflect or foster the stated ideals of a democratic republican form of government.
- Help learners to construct reasoned policy statements and action plans to achieve goals related to issues of public concern.
- Guide learner participation in civic/political activities to strengthen the "common good," based upon careful evaluation of possible options for citizen action.
Candidates in history at all school levels should provide developmentally appropriate experiences as they guide learners in their study. Students will:
- Assist learners in utilizing chronological thinking so that they can distinguish between past, present and future time; can place historical narratives in the proper chronological framework; can interpret data presented in time lines and can compare alternative models for periodization.
- Enable learners to develop historical comprehension in order that they might reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage; identify the central questions addressed in historical narrative; draw upon data in historical maps, charts, and other graphic organizers; and draw upon visual, literary or musical sources.
- Guide learners in practicing skills of historical analysis and interpretation, such as compare and contrast, differentiate between historical facts and interpretations, consider multiple perspectives, analyze cause and effect relationships, compare competing historical narratives, recognize the tentative nature of historical interpretations and hypothesize the influence of the past.
- Help learners understand how historians study history.
- Assist learners in developing historical research capabilities that enable them to formulate historical questions, obtain historical data, question historical data, identify the gaps in available records, place records in context and construct sound historical interpretations.
- Help learners identify issues and problems in the past, recognize factors contributing to such problems, identify and analyze alternative courses of action, formulate a position or course of action and evaluate the implementation of that decision.
- Assist learners in acquiring knowledge of historical content in United States history in order to ask large and searching questions that compare patterns of continuity and change in the history and values of the many peoples who have contributed to the development of the continent of North America.
- Guide learners in acquiring knowledge of the history and values of diverse civilizations throughout the world, including those of the West, and in comparing patterns of continuity and change in different parts of the world.
- Enable learners to develop historical understanding through the avenues of social, political, economic and cultural history and the history of science and technology.
Spanish Language, Literature and Civilization -- Secondary Education, K-12 (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages):
Spanish Language, Literature and Civilization learning outcomes plus the following outcomes:
- Students will be able to plan instruction and design assessments for reading and the study of language, literature and culture to promote learning for all students.
- Students will be able to plan instruction and design assessments for composing texts (i.e., oral, written and visual) to promote learning for all students.
- Students will be able to plan, implement, assess and reflect on research-based instruction that increases motivation and active student engagement, builds sustained learning of Spanish language arts and responds to diverse students' context-based needs.
- Students will demonstrate knowledge of how theories and research about social justice, diversity, equity, student identities and schools as institutions can enhance students' opportunities to learn in Spanish language arts.
- Students will be prepared to interact knowledgeably with students, families and colleagues based on social needs and institutional roles, engage in leadership and/or collaborative roles in Spanish language arts professional learning communities and actively develop as professional educators.
Visual Arts Secondary Education Learning Outcomes
- Students should be conversant with fundamental elements and principles of 2 and 3-dimensional design, including color, space and media theory mixed with broad outlines of art history.
- Students should be able to demonstrate basic skills in a variety of art making techniques (such as drawing, painting, photography, computer graphics, printmaking, sculpture, web and/or video) and advanced skills in at least one art medium.
- Students should be able to synthesize art historical references, media proficiency and design principles in order to propose, execute, and defend a body of new artworks or art historical research.
- Students should also be able to assemble a representative portfolio of their own fine art and/or graphic design.
Learning Outcomes for Bachelor of Music in Music Education
- The teacher candidate will develop skills to be a competent conductor and create accurate and musically expressive performances with various types of performing groups and in the general classroom situation.
- The teacher candidate will develop skills to arrange and adapt music from a variety of sources to meet the needs and ability levels of individuals, school-performing groups and classroom situations.
- The teacher candidate will develop functional performance abilities in keyboard and voice. Functional performance abilities in instruments appropriate to the student's teaching specialization are also essential.
- The teacher candidate will be able to apply analytical and historical knowledge to curriculum development, lesson planning and daily classroom and performance activities; relating their understanding of music with respect to styles, literature, multiple cultural sources and historical development, both in general and as related to their area(s) of specialization.
- The teacher candidate will develop necessary competencies (musicianship, vocal, keyboard and pedagogical skills, knowledge of content, methodologies, philosophies, materials, technologies and curriculum development) to teach music.
- The teacher candidate will develop the ability to teach music at various levels to different age groups and in a variety of classroom and ensemble settings in ways that develop knowledge of how music works syntactically as a communication medium and developmentally as an agent of civilization. This set of abilities includes effective classroom and rehearsal management.
- The teacher candidate will develop an understanding of child growth and development and principles of learning as they relate to music.
- The teacher candidate will develop the ability to assess aptitudes, experiential backgrounds, orientations of individuals and groups of students, and the nature of subject matter, and to plan educational programs to meet assessed needs.
- The teacher candidate will develop knowledge of current methods, materials, and repertories available in various fields of music education appropriate to the teaching specialization.
- The teacher candidate will develop the ability to accept, amend or reject methods and materials based on personal assessment of specific teaching situations.
- The teacher candidate will develop an understanding of evaluative techniques and ability to apply them in assessing both the musical progress of students and the objectives and procedures of the curriculum.
- Performance - Students will acquire technical skills, musicianship and understanding of the repertory requisite for artistic self-expression in at least one major performance area at a level appropriate for the particular degree program.
- Musicianship Skills and Analysis - Students will understand the common elements and organizational patterns of music and their interactions as it relates to aural, verbal and visual analysis.
- Composition/Improvisation - Students will acquire technical skills in creating original or derivative music.
- History and Repertory - Students will acquire knowledge of music history and repertories through the present time including musical repertoires beyond those of the primary culture of the area of specialization.
- Synthesis - Students will be able to synthesize a broad range of musical knowledge and skills (performance, analysis, composition, history and repertory) to evaluate and respond to musical issues appropriate to the particular degree program.
- The vocal/choral teacher candidate will develop sufficient vocal and pedagogical skills to teach individually and in groups the effective use of the voice.
- The vocal/choral teacher candidate will develop knowledge of content, methodologies, philosophies, materials, technologies and curriculum development for vocal/choral music.
- The vocal/choral teacher candidate will develop sufficient performance ability on at least one instrument as a teaching tool and to provide, transpose and improvise accompaniments.
- The vocal/choral teacher candidate will develop knowledge of appropriate repertoire through participation in large and small choral ensembles.
- The instrumental teacher candidate will develop knowledge of and performance ability on wind, string, and percussion instruments sufficient to teach beginning students effectively in groups or individually.
- The instrumental teacher candidate will develop knowledge of content, methodologies, philosophies, materials, technologies and curriculum development for instrumental music.
- The instrumental teacher candidate will develop knowledge of appropriate repertoire through participation in large and small instrumental ensembles.